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White Eagle, Black MadonnaOne Thousand Years of the Polish Catholic Tradition$
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Robert E. Alvis

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780823271702

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823271702.001.0001

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The Gospel and National Greatness (1848–1914)

The Gospel and National Greatness (1848–1914)

(p.160) 7 The Gospel and National Greatness (1848–1914)
White Eagle, Black Madonna

Robert E. Alvis

Fordham University Press

Despite a series of failed uprisings, the dream of independence continued to inspire Poles in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Catholic Church remained an important, if highly problematic, resource as they pursued their ambitions. Russia and Prussia/Germany lost faith in the church as an agent of stability and loyalism in the Polish lands, and they compromised its ability to operate at a time when the Catholic population was expanding and contending with new challenges. Austria’s more tolerant course proved to be something of a saving grace, enabling the church there to thrive. Catholic identity among Poles was enhanced by a strong sense of being under siege by modernity in general and more concrete enemies, including Freemasons and Jews.

Keywords:   Catholic social teaching, Felician Order, Zygmunt Feliński, Kraków, Kulturkampf, peasantry, Polonia, Stanisław Wyspiański

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