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White Eagle, Black MadonnaOne Thousand Years of the Polish Catholic Tradition$
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Robert E. Alvis

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780823271702

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823271702.001.0001

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Reform, Romance, and Revolution (1764–1848)

Reform, Romance, and Revolution (1764–1848)

(p.130) 6 Reform, Romance, and Revolution (1764–1848)
White Eagle, Black Madonna

Robert E. Alvis

Fordham University Press

The 1764 election of King Stanisław August touched off a thirty-year period of reform in Poland-Lithuania, threatening Russian, Prussian, and Austrian control. In response, they divided the country between themselves, initiating more than a century of foreign rule. In this new era, the Catholic Church in the Polish lands faced governments determined to reduce its influence and relieve it of its wealth. High-ranking Catholic officials typically were conservative loyalists, but growing numbers believed that Poles should be free to pursue their own political destiny. The Polish Catholic tradition was sometimes instrumentalized toward this end. At this time, impulses associated with Romanticism began to transform the culture of Catholicism in the Polish lands.

Keywords:   Stanisław August, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Adam Mickiewicz, Napoleon, Nationalism, Partition of Poland, Romanticism, Ultramontanism

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