This chapter outlines the key questions, argument and sub-arguments, contribution to the scholarship, sources, and organization of the study. Urban African Americans’ process of building networks and vision of citizenship yielded a sustainable system of public schools in Richmond and Mobile. As partners and circumstances changed over the twenty-five year period, the study argues that urban African Americans never lost sight of their vision of citizenship and education in their struggle for access and legitimacy that and they successfully enshrined the African American schoolhouse as the fundamental vehicle for distancing themselves from their slave past. The African American schoolhouse, therefore, embodied urban African Americans participation in redefining American citizenship during Reconstruction and transformation of the cultural and physical landscape of the urban South.
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