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Figures of a Changing WorldMetaphor and the Emergence of Modern Culture$
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Harry Berger, Jr.

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780823257478

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: September 2015

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823257478.001.0001

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Metaphor, Metonymy, and Redundancy

Metaphor, Metonymy, and Redundancy

(p.42) Five Metaphor, Metonymy, and Redundancy
Figures of a Changing World

Harry Berger

Fordham University Press

This chapter illustrates how the categorization of metaphor and metonymy as two fundamental tropes arises from the distinction between the literal and figurative uses of language. In this distinction, metonymy is a detour from literal usage but ultimately returns to it; whereas metaphor is a more permanent detour. The chapter then tackles the concept of redundancy in relation to the language of cybernetics. Max Black states that receiving a correct message results in the reduction of uncertainty. Redundancy is a repetition for emphasis that is intended to ensure the accuracy of meaning, increase comprehension, and lessen the probability of wrong guessing. Gregory Bateson defines redundancy as the patterning of particular events within a larger aggregate of events, a relationship between whole and part, much like how the metonymizing process takes place.

Keywords:   literal language, figurative language, metonymy, metaphor, redundancy, Max Black, Gregory Bateson

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