This chapter begins by distinguishing between metaphor and metonymy; the former being prevalent in the modern attitude, while the latter is characteristic of the traditional attitude. It focuses on metaphor, a figure of speech involving a transfer of terms from their literal signification as an assertion of identity. Metaphor basically denies any preexisting state affairs and connects things that belong in different contexts or frames of reference. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson introduced, in Metaphors We Live By and Philosophy in the Flesh, a version of metaphor that is not merely a linguistic device but a concept and cognitive function. The chapter discusses how Lakoff and Johnson produced an account of metaphor that was functionally reduced to the status of a simile, thereby naming it a metaphoric simile.
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