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Freedom and Limits$
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John Lachs and Patrick Shade

Print publication date: 2014

Print ISBN-13: 9780823256747

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: September 2014

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823256747.001.0001

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Human Natures

Human Natures

(p.251) Sixteen Human Natures
Freedom and Limits

Patrick Shade

John Lachs

Fordham University Press

Lachs contends that choice-inclusive facts are useful in better understanding human nature. The designation of an entity as a “human” or “person” depends, on facts but also on choices about how best to carve and organize the continuum of living beings. At the heart of the argument are two elements of choice involved in choice-inclusive facts. One is the emphasis we give to some features at the expense of others in creating classifications, while the other arises when we determine the degree of similarity necessary for an individual's admission to a specific class. Acknowledging the many differences humans exhibit, Lachs proposes that we recognize distinct human natures, each distinguished on the basis of the desires, activities, and satisfactions of individuals. Diverse desire-act-satisfaction triads account for the valuational differences that structure different kinds of lives.

Keywords:   Human nature, Persons, Choice-inclusive facts

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