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Committing the Future to MemoryHistory, Experience, Trauma$

Sarah Clift

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780823254200

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: May 2014

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823254200.001.0001

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(p.247) Index

(p.247) Index

Source:
Committing the Future to Memory
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
Aarsleff, Hans, 44, 210n6, 212n18
absence: of death, 10, 36;
language enclosing, 176;
nonpresence/ nonabsence, 112;
nothingness in the word, 178–79;
of the present in Hegel’s philosophy, 136;
of a temporal dimension, 100–101
Agacinski, Sylviane, 85
aging: loss of (childhood) memory (Locke), 69–71
alienation: and ideal of freedom, 75;
from the past, 5;
remembered past and self-, 44;
and restlessness, 1;
spectator of self, 18;
zoe not properly human, 204n23
America: as “the land of the future,” 135–36
animal(s): and act of naming, 177;
versus human, 204n23, 228n42;
and language, 59–60;
memory and reminiscence, 46, 76;
and spirit (Hegel), 111;
talking parrot (Locke), 55–57, 60–61, 214n29;
and the word “man,” 55
anthropomorphism in Greek art, 100–101, 103, 104, 107–8, 110, 119
Arendt, Hannah: and Aristotle, 16, 18, 203–4n19;
and Benjamin, 207–8n34;
bios over zoe, 204n23;
man and world relations, 206n30;
mourning Communism, 204–5n23;
narrative and human finitude, 35;
philosophy as nonpolitical, 205n24;
and Ricoeur, 16, 203n17;
totalitarianism, 235n44
Between Past and Future: Resistance experience, 36
—“Concept of History”: bios and human immortality, 13–15;
history for ancient Greeks, 2–3, 14–15, 17–18;
lifelessness in historical time, 10–11;
Mnemosyne, 9, 14
On Revolution: birth and natality, 203n18;
freedom and liberty, 227n31;
temporality of revolution, 144–45
The Human Condition: birth and natality, 203n18;
memory and immortality, 16, 22;
modern history in terms of processes, 24–27;
plurality, 17;
Ulysses weeping, 18–19;
vita activa and the vita contemplativa, 205n27
Ariès, Philippe: Hour of Our Death, 35, 207n32
Aristotle: and Arendt, 16, 203–4n19;
on art, 218n18;
on the intellect, 47;
and Locke, 45–46;
Locke’s critique of, 211–12n17;
on memory, 68;
On Memory, 46–47, 211n13;
νούς, 22;
Poetics, 16;
tragedy, 18
art: and art theory, 93, 98, 220n25;
and Christianity (Hegel), 95, 107–10, 125;
classical and symbolic art (Greek), 103–16;
as “higher” (Hegel), 88–89;
and memory/end of art, 85–94, 218–19nn17–20, 220n24;
memory in creation of, 95–103;
and nature, 89, 219n22;
outside time/timelessness, 98;
and philosophy, line blurred (Hegel), 87–89, 90–92;
poetry as universal art (Hegel), 128–31;
rebirth/double origin (Hegel), 89–92, 93;
and thought connected through time, 92–93
Assmann, Jan, 220–21n28;
Das kulturelle Gedächtnis, 2
atrocities repeated: memory as complicit, 4–5
(p.248) Bahti, Timothy, 101–3, 119, 161, 221–22n32
Balfour, Ian, 208n38
Barash, Jeffrey Andrew, 47
Barthes, Roland: “reality effect,” 12
Benjamin, Walter: and Arendt, 207–8n34;
Erfahrung and Erlebnis, 208n37;
historicism critiqued, 10–11;
secret between past and present, 27
—“On Language as Such and the Language of Man,” 208n38
—“On Some Motifs in Baudelaire,” 30, 34, 208n37
—“Theses on the Concept of History,” 227n39
—“Theses on the Philosophy of History”: Angel of History, 11;
Seventh Thesis, 39;
Thirteenth Thesis, 36
—“The Storyteller”: and Arendt, 207–8n34;
Augenblick, 32, 208n39;
citation of “Unexpected Reunion,” 209n42;
the end of narrative, 27–34;
Herodotus, 32–33;
Mnemosyne, 9–10;
temporality and death, 34–39
Bident, Christophe, 172
bios: distinct from zoe, 204n23;
narrative structure, 15, 17;
without birth and death, 25, 27. See also body/corporality
Blanchot, Maurice: absent meaning of disaster, 199;
difficulty of his texts, 172–73, 188, 230n1;
impatience/patience, 172;
notion of the end, 173;
refusal to “let go” of mourning, 175–76;
words as “monsters,” 177
Après coup, 176;
before and after, 189;
désormais, 194;
English translation, 233n29, 234n33, 234n36;
Le Ressassement éternel, 189–90, 233n31;
non-perspective, 197, 200;
provenance of texts, 188–90, 233n30, 234nn3335;
the récit and “before Auschwitz,” 192, 193–95, 195–99, 235n44;
récit-fiction, 196–97;
in relation to Holocaust, 190, 193–95, 234n37, 234n39;
retrospection blocked by the future, 191–92;
as retrospective essay/futurity, 188, 190;
scholarly engagement with, 187–88, 233n27;
Sophie’s Choice (Styron), 196, 235n43;
“The Idyll,” 188, 190, 200, 235n43;
“The Last Word,” 188, 200;
time’s lack of punctuation, 197;
trauma in narrative, 196–97;
writer and authority, 190–91
—“Do Not Forget,” 198, 236n48, 236n50
Le Pas au-delà, 199, 236n52
—“Literature and the Right to Death”: before and after, 184–86, 195;
before and after/retrospection, 186–87, 189;
afterwardsness/ after-words, 181–82, 232n19;
excursus on the “word,” 177–87;
language and ideal negation, 179–87, 232n17;
Lazarus, 181;
life already bound to death, 179;
literary language’s failure, 180–81;
living thing contained in language, 179–80;
meaning into meaningless matter, 182;
naming as form of mastery/annihilation, 177–78;
partage of two sides of language, 182–84;
philosophy rival to literature, 177, 184, 233n23;
survival of the dead/annihilation, 232n16;
typesetting of, 231n13
Writing of the Disaster, 187
body/corporality: definition of “man” (Locke), 55, 57;
disdain for (Plato’s influence), 21, 204n23;
reading a mode of memory, 125;
spirit’s manifestation (Hegel), 100–103, 103–5, 111, 114–15, 119;
spirit’s manifestation, restless (Hegel), 120–26. See also bios
Bosnia, 3
Burbridge, John, 168–69;
“The Necessity of Contingency,” 167
Butler, Joseph, 50, 212n20
Caruth, Cathy, 66, 212n18, 215–16nn3738, 235–36n44
Chakrabarty, Dipesh, 202n7
Char, René, 36
childhood: abuse of words, 60–61, 62;
amnesia regarding, 43, 69–70, 216n38;
“childhood of history” (Hegel), 228n41;
and innatism, 63, 65;
memory forming identity, 64–65;
memory like children (Locke), 69–70;
rote memory, 215n35;
sensory overload, 66–67;
speechlessness, 70, 72
Christianity: anthropomorphism and, 107–8;
and classical Greek art, 95, 107–10, 125;
God with human life span, 23
Cicero, 143
(p.249) corporality. See body/corporality
Danto, Arthur, 86, 218n19
death: banished, 26–27, 34–36, 207n32;
eternity related to, 34–35;
experience through literature, 35–36;
of Greek art withheld (Hegel), 110–11;
historical finitude, 152;
language of life and, 152, 228n49;
mortality/immortality of Greek gods (Hegel), 114–15;
in sculpture of classical ideal, 126;
ubiquitous, 26–27. See also finitude, human
de Certeau, Michel, 26–27, 202n8
de Man, Paul, 94, 228n46, 230n1;
Epistemology of Metaphor, 58, 59, 214n31;
“Sign and Symbol,” 229n57
democracy: Christianity’s heir, 206n31
Derrida, Jacques: on Ariès, 207n32;
désormais, 194, 234n37;
on Hegel’s linearity that circles back (Glas), 84, 217n11;
“LIVING ON: Border Lines,” 195;
“memory work,” 210n7;
“Mnemosyne,” 8–9;
notion of before, 216n40;
“Ousia and Grammē,” 230n72;
“The Pit and the Pyramid,” 229n57
de Vries, Hent, 234n34
Dienstag, Joshua Foa, 136, 139, 213n25, 216n5
Dinesen, Isak, 8
Dobbins, John, 221n29
duty-memory, 6
education: and inwardization (Hegel), 161;
rote memory, 215n35
Enlightenment, 43–44, 48
ethics of memory, 5–6, 7, 198
experience: and abstraction, 154;
of another history, 170;
in childhood, 65;
elimination from and of history, 41;
empiricism and knowledge, 63;
Erfahrung and Erlebnis, 30, 208n37;
Hegel’s critique of Locke’s, 77–81;
history release from and experience of finitude, 18–19, 40;
implicated in memory, 30–39;
intellect dependent on, 47–48, 62–63;
inward movement, 94;
of lost necessity, 170;
memory’s use of, 45, 46–47;
narration and voice, 53;
and narrative shared temporality, 34;
of narrative time, 132;
nonexperience of unforeseeable imminence, 194–95;
present as space of, 143;
of reading Blanchot, 172–73;
self-division/self-grounding, 168–69;
sensation to reflection, 65–68, 215n37;
shock of modern life, 34;
and testimony, 73;
and the two sides of language, 183;
unnarratable, 29–30, 36
Felman, Shoshana, 207–8n34
finitude, historical: end of art, 85–94, 218–19nn1720, 220n24;
end of history, 135–36, 139–40, 157–59, 223n5, 229n55;
end of narrative (récit), 195–99;
mourning loss, 152–53. See also Hegel, G. W. F.
finitude, human: Christianity’s resolution of, 23;
futurity in notions of before, 71–72;
history release from and experience of, 18–19;
and history’s endlessness, 10–11, 14;
of human identity, 50–51;
humans incapable of truth, 20–21;
and narrative, 12–13, 16, 17, 35;
relation of infinite and finite, 80, 81–82;
remembrance expression of, 18;
Socratic and pre-Socratic, 21–22;
temporal succession, 82–83. See also death
freedom: from authority, 74–76;
and dependence, 105
French Revolution: in Hegel’s formulation of history, 142;
history’s “unfinished business,” 135–36;
and language of sublimity, 144–45, 226n28. See also revolution
Freud, Sigmund: Nachträglichkeit/ afterwardsness, 232n19, 234n35;
nachträglich/ belated, 186
Freud, Sigmund “Mourning and Melancholia”: the presence of what is lost, 173–74, 175
Fuss, Peter, 221n29
futurity: after-words in relation to before, 186–87;
double temporality, 108–9;
and end of history, 135;
future imminent to the past (necessary future), 192–95;
as “happening” (Hegel), 148–49;
Hegel’s lack of, 82–83, 136, 139, 216n5;
in notions of before, 71–72, 195, 215n40;
of the past, 133;
reading the past, 131;
retrospection blocked by the future, 191–92;
and time of finitude (Hegel), 82–83, 216n3
Fynsk, Christopher, 179, 232n21
(p.250) Gasché, Rodolphe, 232n17
Gelhard, Andreas, 231n11, 231n13, 232n16, 232n18
Geulen, Eva: The End of Art, 89–92
God and the divine: in Locke, 54, 213n25
Greece, ancient: anthropomorphism in Greek art, 100–101, 103, 104, 107–8, 110, 119;
character of gods, 116–19;
classical and symbolic art, 103–16, 222n33;
clothing, 100, 221n31;
end of art, 86–87, 94, 218n17;
gods in human form, 101–2;
history as storehouse of models (historia magistra vitae), 143, 146, 225n23, 227n34;
history’s role, 14–24;
importance of memory, 220n28;
memory of art, 106;
principle of unity, 49;
sculpture, 120–21, 123, 125–26;
Thucydides, 225n22, 227n34
Guyer, Sarah, 236n50
Hamacher, Werner, 204n20, 206n31, 217n10
Hartman, Geoffrey, 194, 197, 234n39
Hegel, G. W. F.: art of memory, 119, 222n37;
on biography, 216n3;
Blanchot’s reading of, 175–87, 232nn1618;
lack of present/obsession with present, 137, 224nn1415;
“mended sock,” 74;
mourning/Trauer, 174;
a new kind of time, 84, 217n12;
the presence of what is lost, 173;
probing necessity, 166–71;
purpose of history, 18;
restlessness, 1;
speculating on the example, 162–65, 169–72;
surprise, 130–31, 133;
timeliness and linear time, 138–39
Aesthetics: art and Christianity, 95, 109–10, 125;
art and memory/end of art, 85–94, 218–19nn1720, 220n24;
art and nature, 89, 219n22;
art as “higher,” 88–89;
art’s rebirth/double origin, 89–92, 93;
art as “memory’s picture,” 96, 221n30;
character of Greek gods, 116–19;
circular time, 222n32;
classical and symbolic art (Greek), 103–16, 222n33;
double function of memory, 97, 220n28;
double temporality, 108–9;
ethos of the museum, 222n36;
on fable, 214n30;
figure of clothing, 96, 99–103, 221n31;
God with human life span, 23, 206n28;
language of sublimity, 117–19, 120–21;
memory in creation of art, 95–103;;
mourning of gifted men, 122–26, 223n38;
The New Gods of the Classical Ideal,” 116;
philosophy and art, 87–89;
poetry as the universal art, 127–31;
spirit communicated through poetry, 127;
spirit’s corporality, 100–103, 111, 114–15, 119;
spirit’s corporality, restless, 120–26;
spirit’s corporality/dead and ugly elements, 103–5;
truth and appearance, 87;
understanding of history, 133–34
Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, 32–33, 85, 137–38, 209n42, 229n57
Introduction to the Philosophy of History: An Sich, 157–58, 229n54;
contingency with necessity, 167;
end of history, 157–59, 223n5, 229n55;
end of history and prospect of future, 135, 139–40;
history un-lost to philosophy, 158;
on historical narrative, 134;
historical repetition rejected, 146–49;
historic events as linguistic, 140–41, 225n21;
history perspectives, 161;
Idea and history, 147–48;
idealism, 138, 225n18;
mourning historical loss, 150–59, 227n39;
“Original History,” 140;
poetic language in, 152, 227n40;
preserving and transfiguring, 228n43;
preserving and transfiguring (verklären), 153–55;
“slaughter-bench of history,” 149–50;
temporal revolution, 142–46, 227n32;
“Thought is the mightiest epitomizer,” 155;
Thucydides, 141;
translation discrepancies, 223n3;
understanding of history, 135–40;
on understanding of speculation, 138, 157;
unique present unmoored from history, 142–43
Lectures on the History of Philosophy: attitude to Locke, 76, 81;
on Lockean experience and innatism, 77–80;
on Lockean temporality, 79–82;
temporal succession and infinity, 79–80, 79–82;
on universals, 76–80
Phenomenology of Spirit, 1;
“absolute contradiction,” 168;
Bildung, reduction, and devouring, 161;
circling-back, 83–84, 217nn1011;
emptiness of the future, 83;
end of history, 134–35;
necessity and (p.251) contingency, 166–71;
notion of historic present, 143;
recollection as inwardizing (Er-innerung), 94–95;
role of memory in, 85;
speculative thought and perspective, 163–65;
spirit and the understanding, 159–61;
temporality of now and then, 113;
tradition, 106;
understanding of history, 224n7
—Philosophy of Religion, 109
Science of Logic: restlessness, 1;
“The Absolute Relation,” 167–69;
thought’s own activity of Aufheben, 153–54;
“unstable manifoldness” of existence, 134
Heidegger, Martin: on Hegel’s lack of future, 82–83, 136;
and the otherwise, 230n72;
sending and historicity in fate, 125;
time “leveled down” in Hegel, 133
Being and Time: Augenblick, 208n39;
Hegel’s time, 84
Heine, Heinrich, 137
Hill, Leslie, 197
historical memory, 1, 2, 3–4, 5, 201n3
history: abbreviated thought/detached understanding, 160–61, 164–65;
access to, 156;
the act of citing an example from, 170–71;
Arendt and Benjamin on historicism, 10;
and art’s pastness, 87–88;
events as linguistic, 140–41, 225n21;
excess of meaning, 191;
future imminent to the past (necessary future), 192–95;
future in history, 44;
Hegel’s as “thing of the past,” 170;
Hegel’s philosophical understanding of, 133;
historical repetition (historia magistra vitae), 146–49;
Idea and, 148;
and language, 5–6, 33, 40;
life of its own, 27;
linear time, 194, 202n7;
Locke’s “state of nature,” 41–42;
modern history in terms of processes, 24–27;
mourning historical loss, 150–59, 227n39;
mourning-work of, 187;
multiplicity of times at once, 147;
and necessity and contingency, 169–70;
and philosophy’s timelessness, 98;
and poetry, 128–31;
as posthumous, 39–40;
pragmatic type, 141–42;
probing necessity, 166–71;
reading as mode of memory, 125;
as reduction/distillation, 155–59, 228nn4849;
retrospective, 192–93;
situate the violence of, 36;
“slaughter-bench of history” (Hegel), 149–50;
speculative thought and perspective, 163–65;
storehouse of ideas, 68–69, 143, 147, 226n24;
theoretical abstractions and evasions of, 42–43;
Ulysses hearing his own, 18–19;
unity with narration, 134–35. See also Greece, ancient
Hobbes, Thomas, 42
Holland, Michael, 188–89, 233n30, 234n33
Holocaust: Après coup in relation to, 190, 193–95, 196–200, 234n37, 234n39;
narratives, 235n43
Holocaust Memorial (Washington), 3
Houlgate, Stephen: “Hegel and the ‘End’ of Art,” 86, 219n20
Hume, David, 213n21
idealism, 138, 225n18
identity of the self: consciousness and memory, 49;
consciousness and memory (criticism), 50–51, 212–13nn2021;
counterfeit testimony/mask, 54–55, 57–58, 62;
freedom /alienation, 75–76;
Levinas, 231n14;
Locke’s influence, 43–45, 49–50, 74–75, 210n4;
and memory, 64–73;
memory to distinguish, 49;
self-examination, 48;
self-examination witnessed, 52–53, 57–58;
social context and memory, 53;
temporality in, 51
imagination: slippage with memory, 47, 211n13
individual: narrative’s emphasis of, 17;
reduced to a function, 24–27
information: and demise of storytelling, 31
intellect/understanding: abbreviated thought, 159–61;
art and thought connection (Hegel), 92–93;
art theory, 93, 220n25;
childhood origins, 65–66;
criticisms of Locke’s Essay, 212n18;
and experience, 47–48;
innatism, 45, 51, 62–63, 65, 211n8, 215n34;
knowing loss/mourning, 174–75;
limit to historic knowledge, 198;
memory as storehouse of ideas, 68, 143;
mourning of gifted men, 122–26;
necessity and contingency, 169–70, 230n72;
reconcile history with thought, 139;
relation of ideas to words, 58–64;
self-examination and experience, 48–49;
sensation to (p.252) reflection, 65–68, 215n37;
thinking and freedom, 153, 228n42. See also philosophy
Jolley, Nicholas, 43–44, 212n18
Kant, Immanuel, 162–63, 225n18, 226n28;
Critique of Judgment, 128–29
Kaufmann, Walter, 156, 162–63
Klee, Paul (Angelus Novus), 227n39
Kojève, Alexandre, 82, 136, 216n5, 225n18, 232n18;
Hegel’s end of history, 132
Koselleck, Reinhart, 227n32
Kristeva, Julia, 204n23
Lacan, Jacques, 186, 234n35
Lacoue-Labarthe, Philippe, 195, 224n7, 234n34
Lang, Beryl, 86, 218nn1819
language: abuse of words, 61–62, 214n33;
afterwardsness/afterwords, 181;
Blanchot’s before and after, 184–86;
Blanchot’s philosophy of, 176, 231n11;
Blanchot’s two sides of, 182–84;
child’s speechlessness, 70, 72;
as communication primarily, 208n38;
definition of man (Locke), 55, 57;
denaturalizing progress, 11;
disconnected from consciousness, 60;
first language of infinity, 222n37;
as force of unity for historians, 140–41, 225n21;
identity and voice, 53;
living thing contained in, 179–80;
memory matter of, 5–6, 22;
pedagogy and acquisition of, 215n35;
poetry as universal art, 129–31;
poetry’s art of speech, 126–27;
relation of ideas and words, 58–64, 214n33;
of sublimity, 119, 120–21, 144–45, 151–52, 226n28;
tarrying with, 184, 233n22;
temporal openings and poetic, 131;
temporal relations expressed, 203n9;
uncanny trace of illegibility, 184. See also literature; narrative; storytelling
Laplanche, Jean, 232n19
Law, Edmund, 213n22
legal testimony, 207–8n34
Le Goff, Jacques (History and Memory), 11–12, 203n9, 204n22, 225n23
Leibniz, I. G. W., 45–46
Leskov, Nikolai, 29
Levinas, Emmanuel, 200, 231n14
life span: Christian deification of, 23;
history removed from, 25–26;
human and history, 153, 228n41;
narrative beyond its completion, 34;
narrative memory in terms of, 13–22
Liska, Vivian, 194, 233n28
literature: failure to seize what is “before,” 180–81;
philosophy rival to (Blanchot), 177;
and physicality of language, 182;
and two sides of language, 184. See also language
Locke, John: and Aristotle on intellect, 47;
and Aristotle on memory, 45–47;
on Aristotle’s shortcomings, 211–12n17;
historical context, 210n7;
influence on philosophy, 43–45, 49–50, 74–75, 81, 210n4 (see also Hegel, G. W. F.);
innate principles, 45, 51, 62–63, 65, 74–75, 77–80, 211n8, 215n34;
interest in childhood, 64;
pedagogy and language acquisition, 215n35;
travel literature, 55, 213n26;
use of rhetorical figures, 66
Essay Concerning Human Understanding: criticism of, 49–51, 212–13nn2021, 212n18;
identity and social context and memory, 53;
identity and time and space, 51;
memory and identity, 49, 64–73;
“Of Retention,” 68;
memory and sense-perception, 45;
“Of Identity and Diversity,” 44, 51, 55, 64;
“Of the Abuse of Words,” 61, 214n33;
personhood, identity, and memory, 43–44;
relation of words and ideas, 58–64;
self-examination, 48;
self-examination witnessed, 52–53;
talking parrot story, 55–57, 60–61, 63, 213n27, 214n29
—“Of Ideas in General and their Original”: observations of childhood, 64–72, 216n38;
understanding and experience, 47–48
Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 215n35
The Second Treatise of Government: “state of nature,” 41–42
Lukács, Georg, 37
Macpherson, C. B., 42
Malabou, Catherine, 23, 109–10, 228n50;
The Future of Hegel, 167–68, 217n12
(p.253) Mallarmé, Stéphane, 232n18;
Crise de Vers, 177–78
Marxism, 145
Meier, Christian, 235n44
memoir, 4
memory: and anticipation, 37–39;
and art, 95–103, 106, 119;
and consciousness, 63–64;
in a democracy, 206n31;
eruptive dimension implicit to necessity, 170;
as everlastingness, 15;
experience implicated in, 30–39;
false memories/counterfeit testimony, 54–55, 57–58, 62;
and freedom from authority, 76;
futurity in surprise, 39, 40, 209n42;
in Hegel’s circling back, 83–84;
in Hegel’s Phenomenology, 85, 217–18n13;
and identity, 43–45, 49, 52–53, 64–72, 221n29;
and inwardizing, 94–95, 161;
“Keep watch over absent meaning,” 198–99, 236n50;
memory as a dilemma, 9;
“memory work” (Derrida), 210n7;
not linked to the temporal, 19–22, 204n22;
nonredemptive account of, 176;
and poetry, 129–31;
process of abstraction or omission, 154–56, 228n46;
public, 3–4;
reading as historical/philosophical, 125;
as reminder, 170;
rote, 162, 215n35, 229n57;
and sense-perception, 45, 46–47;
slippage with imagination, 47, 211n13;
storehouse of ideas, 68–69, 143;
time of memory/ reading the past, 130–31;
two dominant understandings of, 22. See also mourning
metaphysics, 20, 45–46, 48
middle class, 31, 208n38
Mnemosyne, 8–9, 14
modernity: art no longer “thoughtless,” 92–93, 219–20nn2324;
in Hegel’s end of history, 136;
Neuzeit/”new time,” 146, 224n8;
and poetic language, 130–31
Mole, Gary, 188
mortality: afterwardsness/after-words, 181;
language and ideal negation, 179–82, 232n17. See also finitude, human
mourning: futurity of, 33;
of gifted men, 122–26, 223n38;
historical loss, 150–59, 227n39;
historical loss, subjective gaze, 151;
loss of child/memory, 69–71;
memory linked to, 18–19;
and morning/new beginnings, 173–74;
mourning-work of history, 187, 198;
the presence of what is lost, 173–74;
“slaughter- bench of history” (Hegel), 149–50;
storytelling, 32–33;
Trauer, 122, 174. See also memory
museum: emerging ethos of in Hegel, 222n36
naming: as form of mastery, 177–78
Nancy, Jean-Luc, 164–65, 226n26, 229n54;
Being Singular Plural, 3;
The Speculative Remark, 229n57
narrative: bios and biography, 15, 17;
complex relation to memory, 8–9;
critique of récit, 195–99;
death, Socratic and pre-Socratic, 21–22;
and experience shared temporality, 34;
finitude, 12–13, 16, 35;
future imminent to the past (necessary future), 192–95;
and Hegel’s understanding of history, 224n7;
of history’s moments (rupture), 157, 164–65;
identity and verbal, 53;
memory and art, 95–103, 110–11;
memory without, 10;
notions of before, 72;
notions of before/ after, 189–90;
notions of before/ after (Auschwitz), 192, 193–95, 196, 198, 199, 200, 235n44;
pastness and futurity, 132 (see also temporality);
plot structure, temporality of, 16;
plurality and individual, 17–18;
and poetry as universal art, 128–31;
temporal modalities in structure, 12, 13–22;
truthfulness, 58;
unity with historical events, 134–35, 158–59;
of World History, 147. See also language; literature; storytelling
Nazism: Arendt’s and Benjamin’s encounters, 10
“Never Forget”/”Never Again,” 2–3
Newman, Barnett, 220n25
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 137, 138, 224n16;
“The Utility and Liability of History for Life”: presence of what is lost, 173–74
Nora, Pierre, 6
nostalgia: phantom nostalgia, 170;
and unnarratable experience, 29–30
novel: experience of death, 35–36, 37–39;
and story, 34, 38–39. See also narrative
parrot (Locke’s), 55–57, 60–61, 63, 214n29
(p.254) pedagogy, 161, 215n35
personhood: terminology, 53–54, 213n22. See also identity of the self
Phillips, James, 231n11, 233n22
philosophy: aesthetic theory, 222n36;
and art, line blurred (Hegel), 87, 90–92;
death as a gain, 21–22;
empiricism, 45, 63, 64–65, 68, 77, 82 (see also experience);
Hegel and Locke compared, 76–77;
Hegel’s understanding of history, 133–40;
history un-lost to, 158–159;
of language, 176, 231n11;
Locke’s influence, 43–45, 49–50, 74–75, 81, 210n4;
memory and art, 95–103;
memory as immortality, 20–21;
and metaphor, 214n31;
mourning historical loss, 151–59;
as nonpolitical, 21, 205n24;
not otherwise/contingency, 230n72;
and poetry as universal art, 128–31;
probing necessity, 166–71;
reading as mode of memory, 125;
relation of words and ideas, 61, 214n33;
rival to literature, 176–77, 233n23;
of the self, 75–76;
severed memory from human affairs, 22–23, 205n27;
speculating on the example, 162–65;
speculative thought and perspective, 163–65;
theory outside time/timelessness, 98, 163–65;
timelessness and history’s time, 98–99, 102–3;
understanding of “speculation,” 138, 157. See also intellect/understanding
Pinkard, Terry, 220n24
Plato: metaphysics of, 45–46;
Phaedo, 20–21;
Phaedrus, 61; άρρητον, 22;
Symposium, 19–20
poetry: art of speech, 126–27;
chiasm, 152, 227n40;
and history, 203–4n19;
inscribing politics to memory, 17–18;
the universal art, 127–31
politics and political action: birth and natality, 203n18;
born in the present, 147;
Christianity’s withdrawal from, 24, 206n31;
and consequences of endless mourning, 175;
critique of innate ideas, 215n34;
democracy and Christianity, 206n31;
Greek narration of, 17;
and Hegel’s contingent history, 167;
Hegel’s interest in, 137;
Locke’s “state of nature,” 41–42;
narrative immortalizing, 22;
narrative neutralizing, 197;
separated from history, 145, 164;
as separate from philosophy, 21, 205n24
present/now: assimilate what is lost, 173–74;
lack of/obsession with (Hegel), 137, 224nn1415;
politics born in the, 147;
secret between past and, 27;
unmoored from history, 142–43
progress: Benjamin’s storm, 11;
end of history as end of, 135–36;
Le Goff’s critique, 11–12;
temporal parameters, 36. See also temporal sequence
pyramid’s structure (Hegel), 32–33, 209n42
Rauch, Leo, 158, 223–24n6
reading-writing the past: future in representation, 6–7
reality effect (Barthes), 12, 202n8
redemption, 18, 22, 27, 176, 197, 199, 235n43
Redfield, Marc, 230n2
Reid, Thomas, 49–50
reminiscence: distinct from memory (Aristotle), 46–47
Resistance, 36
restlessness: forerunner of negativity, 1
retrospection: blocked by the future, 191–92;
dual time in narrative, 108–9, 125;
of history, 42;
memory, 5;
sense of futurity, 186
revolution: Arendt’s temporality of, 144–45;
Hegel’s temporal, 142–46, 226n26;
paradoxical understanding of, 227n31;
terminology, 144. See also French Revolution
Ricoeur, Paul: Time and Narrative, 12–13, 16, 203n17
Rieff, David: Slaughterhouse, 3–4
Rose, Gillian: Mourning Becomes the Law, 175–76
Rosen, Stanley, 229n64
Rothberg, Michael, 234n37
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: “On the Origins of Inequality,” 42
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 231n12, 232n18
self-consciousness, 49
Seneca, 172
sense-perception. See experience
Sibree, J., 158, 223n6
Smock, Ann, 230n3
social context: childhood in, 64;
of memory, 52–53;
relation of meaning to words, 59
(p.255) Socrates: final conversation, 20–21;
learning is reminiscence, 46;
as storyteller, 9;
Theaetetus, 8
Socratic school of philosophy, 19
Sophie’s Choice (Styron), 196, 235n43
soul: not enslaved in time, 20–21
storytelling: fable, 58, 214n30;
information and demise of, 31–33;
language of, 33;
language of memory, 5–6;
loss of, 28–39;
and novel, 34, 38–39;
talking parrot (Locke), 55–57, 73, 214n29. See also narrative; testimony
Styron, William: Sophie’s Choice, 196, 235n43
sublime. See under language
Surber, Jere, 219n23
surprise: Blanchot’s récit, 197;
Hegelian, 130;
history and futurity (Benjamin), 209n42;
history’s capacity to (Hegel), 133;
potential in the story, 39;
of two temporal registers (Hegel), 133;
unexpected mourning (Benjamin), 33
Szondi, Peter, 218n17
Taylor, Charles, 166, 210n4, 229n65;
Sources of the Self, 74–76
Temple, Sir William, 56
temporality: Absolute Knowledge as end of time, 216n5;
afterwardsness/ after-words, 181, 185–86;
après coup and entretemps, 231n14;
art and thought connection (Hegel), 92–93;
before and after/ retrospection, 184–86, 186–87, 189, 195;
in criticism of Locke’s theory of memory, 213n21;
double, 108–9;
future imminent to the past (necessary future), 192–95;
for Hegel’s spirit, 82–83;
Hegel’s temporal revolution, 142–46;
identity, 51;
lack of punctuation/ redemption, 197;
linear time, 194, 199, 202n7;
of narrative and experience, 34;
of necessity and contingency, 169;
in novel and story, 37–39, 40;
nun or “now” moment, 112–13, 149;
past in art creation, 96–103;
relation of infinite and finite, 79–82;
in sculpture of classical ideal, 126;
self confronted by the past, 71;
surprise of two temporal registers, 133;
theory as outside time/timelessness, 98, 102–3, 163–65;
timeliness in historical context, 138–39;
time of memory/reading the past, 130–31;
unique present unmoored from history, 142–43;
of writer and authority, 190–91
temporal sequence: lifelessness, 10–11;
narrative structure, 12;
storm of progress, 11
temporal succession and infinity, 79–80
Terada, Rei, 204n20
testimony: language of memory, 5–6;
notions of before, 71–72, 216n40;
stabilizing self, 73;
threat of counterfeit, 54, 56–58, 62. See also storytelling
third-person perspective, 75–76
Thucydides, 141, 225n22
time: information and the moment, 31–33;
“real time,” 208n39
trauma, 206n31, 235n44;
and narrative, 197–200. See also Holocaust
truth: abuse of language, 62;
and appearance, 87;
and art, 88;
false memories /counter feittestimony, 54–55, 57–58, 62 ;
and finitude, 20–21;
of narrative authority, 58
Tuveson, Ernest, 66
Ulysses: weeping, 18–19, 204n20
Ungar, Steven, 233n28
US Holocaust Memorial (Washington), 3. See also Holocaust
Verene, Donald, 83, 161, 217–18n13, 222n37
war: unnarratable experience of, 29–30. See also Holocaust
Warminski, Andrzej: “Dreadful Reading: Blanchot on Hegel,” 187
Wieviorka, Annette, 235n43
Winkler, Kenneth, 212n20
Wood, Neil, 43, 210n7, 211–12n17, 211n8, 215n34
Wyss, Bert, 222n36
Yolton, John, 211n8
Zeitgeist, 146, 227n33