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Heartbeats in the MuckThe History, Sea Life, and Environment of New York Harbor, Revised Edition$
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John Waldman

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780823249855

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: May 2013

DOI: 10.5422/fordham/9780823249855.001.0001

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The Vessel: Bank and Bottom, Bulldozers and Blasts

The Vessel: Bank and Bottom, Bulldozers and Blasts

(p.78) 4 The Vessel: Bank and Bottom, Bulldozers and Blasts
Heartbeats in the Muck

John Waldman

Fordham University Press

New York Harbor has experienced profound physical alteration since the Colonial era. This includes dredged channels, filling of wetlands, creation of artificial islands, construction of piers and sea walls, and the blasting of reefs hazardous to navigation, such as in Hell Gate in the East River. The value of piers as habitat has remained contentious since the West Side Highway Study (Westway) in the early 1980s. A recent emphasis on habitat restoration is partly the product of cleaner water allowing the return of life.

Keywords:   Hell Gate, East River, Islands, Westway, Habitat restoration

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