This chapter explores conceptions of Italian national consciousness in the Adriatic territories. It focuses on the impact of nationalist ideas and educational philosophies on policies designed to promote national belonging in the new eastern border territories after World War I and in the first years after the Fascist takeover. Principles embedded in Fascist educational reforms, predicated on notions of the primacy of the state over the needs of individuals, influenced the development of the nationalization legislation. The chapter explores how attempts to inculcate conceptions of nationalism tied to Latin and Italian heritage affected nationalizing policies and their enactment in the borderland.Regionally-based understandings grounded in the Habsburg commercial heritage of Italy’s new borderlands that conflicted with Italian nationalist and irredentist ideas provoked legal conflicts at the root of the Paulovich case.
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