In Reduction and Givenness, Jean-Luc Marion argues that both Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger retain limits and conditions for phenomena by conceiving of them as constituted objects (Husserl) or in terms of being (Heidegger). According to Marion, these limits exclude or distort phenomena, especially those that are “not objectified” or “do not have to be”. Marion asserts that a reduction to givenness allows all phenomena to be given in themselves and as themselves because it has an “original absence of conditions and determinations”. Marion develops the theory of such a reduction to givenness in Being Given, which is his systematic elaboration of a phenomenology of givenness. In contrast to theories that understand phenomena as objects or in relation to being, a phenomenology of givenness understands phenomena as “purely and strictly given, without remainder, and owing all their phenomenality to givenness”.
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