This chapter concludes this book by briefly exploring the possibility that Royce's progressive racial anti-essentialism is, in fact, a form of cultural, anti-black racism and wonders if this taints his ethico-religious insight. The chapter argues that Royce seems to have espoused racism against black persons based not on inherent biological inferiority, but on cultural and intellectual inferiority. His example of how the English colonizers of Jamaica introduced “civilization”, in the form of bureaucratic administration and technocratic order, to the people of African descent residing there is an example of the sort of racism common in contemporary America. Royce's association of Jamaican blacks with culturally inferior persons can be understood as an early example of what some social scientists call laissez-faire racism.
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