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Confederate Phoenix$

Edmund L. Drago

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780823229376

Published to Fordham Scholarship Online: March 2011

DOI: 10.5422/fso/9780823229376.001.0001

(p.197) Index

Source:
Confederate Phoenix
Publisher:
Fordham University Press
“A Plea for Young Soldiers,” 24
absent fathers, 30
adulthood, passing to, 2
African American History Monument, 135
age of enlistment, 14
Anderson, Major Robert H., 6, 8
anti-Semitism, 89
Antietam, 21
artisans and, 78
demoralization after, 86–87
army reorganization, 140
artificial limbs, 110
artisans
Antietam and, 78
blacksmiths, 79
Lowcountry, 77
millers, 78
shoemakers, 79
Upcountry, 77
babies, 33, 34
balls, mourners attending, 68
Baptist Sunday schools, 51
Battle of Fort Wagner, 32
Battle of Honey Hill, 23
Battle of Secessionville reenactment, 133
Battle of the Crater, 27
bazaar in State Legislature, 92–93
Beauregard, General P. G. T., 11,20, 33, 62, 99
Birth of a Nation, 128
black children, 2
attending school with white, 123
education, 108
Klan violence and, 117
black franchise, limiting, 124
black men living with white women, 69
black middle class, 123
black ministers' millennial interpretation of war, 108
Black Republicanism, 3
black suffrage, 109
black women
Confederate soldiers' sexual activity, 69
Sherman's army and, 94
blacksmiths, 79
bloomers, 68
Blythwood Female Academy, 54
boy soldiers, 14
“A Plea for Young Soldiers,” 24
Antietam, 21
capture, 22
compulsion to serve, 17
couriers, 19
drill units, 6
drum corps, 18
elite women and, 15
guards, 19
Hampton's scouts, 21
imprisonment, 22
Joe Brown's Pets, 21
mail carriers, 19
malleability, 21
Marine School, 18
orderlies, 19
physical immaturity of, 20
proclamation allowing sixteen-year-olds, 23
returned to parents, 16–17
running away to join war, 16
vigilance associations, 6
war as ticket to manhood, 16
boys of ' 64, 14
boys' play, 6
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 130
Bull Run victory, schools and, 51
burning Yankee schoolbooks, 61
Camden Archives and Museum, dolls, 37
Camden Male Academy, 51
Camden Orphan Society, 104
Carolina Zouaves, 13
casualties of war, 110
Catholic Sisters of Mercy, 51, 104
cavalrymen, horses and, 38
Chapin, Sarah F. (“Sallie”), 13, 64, 93, 94, 103, 104, 112, 124, 128
Chaplain to the Confederacy, 8
Charleston, 98, 100
Charleston battery, 7
Charleston public school system, 12
Chesnut, Mary
father-in-law and, 65
Jews and, 89
militia of boys and old men, 15
child rearing
cooperation in, 3
discipline, 35
gender and, 30
modern fathers, 33
nursing, 34
patriarchy and, 32
spanking, 34
weaning babies, 34
childcare, slave women and, 40
childhood, 2, 65
children
Congressional Reconstruction and, 109
farmers and, 65
naming, 33
raising money, 12
Sherman's army and, 96
slaying as retaliation, 10
Children's Crusade, 11
children's literature, 50, 62
China dolls, 37
christening of Palmetto State, 59
Christian families, 30
Church Babies, 37
Citadel, 23, 55, 102, 126, 133
Civil Rights Act of 1965, 130
Civil War reenactments, 133
class divisions, prewar politics and, 58
clergy, exemption of preachers, 8
collective memory, 3
College of Charleston, 55
Columbia, burning, 93
commodities shortages, 75
common-law marriages, interracial marriages, 69
companions, women as, 33
Confederacy, passports to leave, 90
Confederate Baptist, 59–60
bazaar at State Legislature, 93
fashion, 68, 69
Little Nell, 62–64
mourners attending balls, 68
Tom Brown, 62–64
Uncle Fabian, 62–64
Confederate Educational Association, religion and education, 60
Confederate flag, 4, 102, 123, 127, 133–34, 136
Confederate Memorial Day, 102, 127
Confederate monument of Abbeville, fire damage, 132
Confederate Phoenix, 121, 123
Confederate press, 10
Confederate secretary of war, letters to, 75
Confederate soldiers, sexual activity with black women, 69
Confederate textbook movement, 61
Confederate Veteran, 125
conflicting legacies, 3
Congressional Reconstruction, 108
children and, 109
conscription
attack against government and, 89
complaints, 87
Conscription Act of April 1862, 14
age limit changes, 42
Cumming family and, 45
exemptions, 141
Harris family and, 43
teachers and, 51
Uncle Fabian and, 62
conscription of horses, 37
cooperation in child rearing, 3
couriers, boy soldiers as, 19
courting, 66
age of onset for girls, 67
fickleness of suitors, 71
forbidden behavior, 67
Yankee ideas, 67
crow soup, 39
Cumming family, 44–46
Dances, 67, 68
Davis, Jefferson, 5, 8, 9, 11, 15, 16, 19, 30, 71, 76, 89, 91
death, 39
addressing with children, 39
children's friends, 40
emotions and, 40
(p.199)
as legacy of war, 109–10
male children and, 40
women's dress, 39
defense of the household, dogs and, 37
deserters, 19, 27, 70, 90, 111
details, definition, 138
disabled soldiers, marriage to, 72
discharges
definition, 138
kidney ailments and, 84
petitions for, 83
physical reasons for, 83–84
for physicians, 77
wounded soldiers and, 85
discipline of children, 35
progressives and, 35
disease
measles, 20, 38
typhoid, 20
yellow fever, 20
distilling, 26, 60
districts, 139
Doby family, 32–33, 103
dogs, 37
dolls, 37
draft age lowered, 15
dreams, 30–32
drum corps, 18
Due West Female Academy, 53–54
Easter, rabbits laying eggs, 34
economy, reconstruction and, 109
education. see also schools
Baptist Sunday schools and, 51
black children, 108
children's literature, 50, 62
Confederate textbook movement, 61
evangelical academies, 57
exempt teachers, 53–54
female academies, 53–54
free schools, 50
Freedmen's Bureau, 108
girls', 56
Little Lessons for Little People, 103
nation building and, 50, 58
orphans, 103, 106
religion and, 60
rural parents, 50
students enlisting, 55
textbooks, 50
white and black children together, 123
egoism bred in males, 35
elite families
assets after war, 111–12
children in new situations, 112
exemptions and, 87
girls' education, 56, 66
relatives as overseers, 80
resources, 112
Sherman's army, 94
surviving in new world, 112–14
vaccinations, 38
weddings, 72
women, boy soldiers and, 15
elopements, 69–70
emancipation, 3
Emancipation Day Parade, 108
Emancipation Proclamation, interracial marriage and, 69
emotional problems as casualty of war, 110, 111
emotions, death and, 40
Enforcement Act of 1870, 119
enlistment standards, 14
Europe, refuge in, 90
evangelical academies, 57
evangelicals, Upcountry, 59–60
evils of war and people's transgressions, 60
exemptions
definition, 138
elites, 87
family hardship, 86
families
absent fathers, 30
medical hardships, 85–86
family hardship exemption, 86
family life, 75
family of liberation, 3
fancy, 67–68
farmers, children and, 65
fashion, 68
bloomers, 68
Confederate Baptist, 69
Dr. Mary E. Walker, 68
French peasantry, 69
Garibaldi look, 68
Godey's Ladies Book, 73
Honour, Theodore on, 68–69
shabby finery, 69
fathers, absent, 30
female academies, 53–54
elite girls and, 66
(p.200) fickleness of suitors, 71
finishing schools, 56
firstborn male children, 32
fishing, 36
Florence Prison, 19
Fludd, Eliza, 95, 114–16
folk medicine, 39
food, 75
forbidden behavior for teenagers, 67
Fort Delaware Prison, 22
Fort Moultrie, movement to Fort Sumter, 6
Fort Sumter
evacuation, 99
firing on, 7
removal of women and children, 7
victory, schools and, 51
Fort Wagner, fighting at, 3
free schools, 50
Freedmen's Bureau, schools, 108
French peasantry dress, 69
furloughs
definition, 138
for marriage for soldiers, 71
Garibaldi look, 68
gender-related play, 36
Geographical Reader for Dixie's Children, 62
Gettysburg, defeat at, religion and, 60
girls. see also wives
courting, age of onset, 67
dolls as gifts, 37
education, 56
elite, female academies and, 66
husbands, 65
qualities of good wives, 65
rebellion and, 66
Godey's Ladies Book, 68, 73
grandmothers as surrogates, 103
Great Fire of Charleston, 92
Griffith, D. W., 128
guards, boy soldiers as, 19
Hall, Susan, 14
Halleck, General Henry W., 9
Hampton, General Wade, 15, 106, 109, 116, 120–22,135
Hampton's scouts, 21
Harby, Lee Cohn, 2
Harris family, 42–43, 52
marriage of David Golightly and Emily Liles, 42
hatred toward Northerners, 111
health, 38–39
Hebrew Orphan Society, 104
hell in a handbasket, 66
heroics of children, reports of, 9
Heyward, Pauline DeCaradeuc, 111, 113
H. L. Hunley submarine, 134
holy hatred of the Yankees, 11
home details for physicians, 77
Home for Mothers, Widows, and Daughters, 106
honor, manly (Southern honor), 42
Honour, Theodore, 59
fashion, 68–69
God's turning against South Carolina, 60
horses
cavalrymen and, 38
conscription of, 37
ownership, 37
socializing of males through, 38
hunting, 36
husband hunting, 65
impressment, 88–89
imprisonment of boy soldiers, 22
incest among planters, 12
independence of women, 71
inflation, 27–28, 43, 48, 61, 75, 78, 89, 121
inheritance, impressment and, 88
interracial marriage, 12, 69
common-law marriages,69
elopements,69–70
invalids sent into army, 88
Jackson, General Thomas J. “Stonewall,” 10, 100, 108
Jenkins, General Micah, funeral of, 102, 134
Jewish families, 30
anti-Semitism, 89
Jim Crow segregation, 123
Joe Brown's Pets, 21
journalists, 8
kidney ailments, 84
King's Mountain Military Academy, 55, 102
(p.201) Ku Klux Klan, 117–20
Constitution, 119
Ku Klux Klan Act, 119
Ladies' Benevolent Society for Orphans and Destitute Children, 104
Ladies Gunboat Campaign, 12
language, inappropriate, 73
Lee, General Robert E., 37, 108
letters to Confederate secretary of war, 75
limbs, artificial. see artificial limbs
linguistic rebellion, 73
Little Lessons for Little People, 103
Little Nell, 62–64
Lodebar, 18
Lowcountry
artisans, 77
attitudes toward Upcountry, 59
cultural differences between Upcountry people, 59
Episcopal, 67–68
mortality rate, 39
physicians, 76
refugees to Upcountry, 59
secession and, 58
women, Upcountry women and, 58
lynching of blacks, 124
machismo bred in males, 35
Magnolia Cemetery, 102, 108, 114, 116, 134–35
mail carriers, boy soldiers as, 19
malleability of children, 35
Mammies, 40
Manly, Basil, 7
Chaplain to the Confederacy, 8
Manly, Basil Jr., 8
orphans and, 103
Marine School, 18
marriage
average age of first, 66
common-law, interracial marriage, 69
to disabled soldiers, 72
fears about, 73
feuds with parents, 70
fickleness of suitors, 71
furloughs for soldiers, 71
interracial, 69
elopements, 69–70
marriage epidemic, 73
as milestone of end of childhood, 65
to older soldiers, 73
partners to share life, 73
to soldiers, 71
as ticket home for soldiers, 71
weddings, 70
married women. see also wives childless, 65
martial law, Ku Klux Klan and, 118
maternal influence and sons, 35
McCrady, Edward Jr., 109
McDowall, Sallie D., 66
measles, 20, 38
medical hardships, 85
cancer, 85–86
medicines, 39
Memminger, C. G., 12, 58
mental anguish, 111
mental illness, 110
millennial interpretation of the war by black ministers, 108
millers, 78
minor, definition of, 14
miscegenation, Emancipation Proclamation and, 69
mock weddings, 67
modern fathers, 33
molding the embryo, 33
morale at home, 75
morphine, 39
mortality patterns, 20
mortality rate, 39
mortally wounded husbands, 40
mourning, attending balls, 68
Mt. Zion Institute, 54–55
musicians, 18–19
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 123, 130, 133–34
Charleston chapter,129
naming children, 33
narcotic addiction, 39
nation building, 50
education and, 58
education system and, 50
as taught in schools, 57
nationalism
religion and, 60
Yankee schoolbooks and, 61
news of children to men, 34
newspapers, Christian family and, 30
nightmares, 30–32
(p.202) North Carolina Educational Association, Confederate textbook movement, 61
Northeastern Depot fire, 92
Nostradamus, 8
nursing babies, 34
opium, 39, 112
orderlies, boy soldiers as, 19
Orphan House, 104
orphanages, 104–5
orphans
Basil Manly Jr., 103
definition of, 102
education, 103, 106
Home for Mothers, Widows, and Daughters, 106
inheritance, impressment and, 88
Northern soldiers abandoning Southern-born offspring, 104
number produced by war, 102
religious background, 106
widows and, 103
overseers for slaves, 80, 82
Palmetto State, 5, 13, 92, 101
punchbowl made from boiler,136
sinking of,59
parties, teenagers and, 67
passports to leave Confederacy, 90
paternalism, slave differences and, 81
patriarchy
child rearing and, 32
women soldiers and, 57
patriotism
marriage to disabled soldiers, 72
marriage to older soldiers, 73
romantic, 66
Sunday schools and, 60
peaches as cure for diarrhea, 39
pepper tea, 39
phoenix, 2, 112, 116, 132
Phoenix Riot, 124
physical immaturity of boy soldiers, 20
physical reasons for discharge, 83–84
physicians, 76–77
planters, incest among, 12
play, 36
poor parents, sons entering war, 15
poppies, opium, 39
Port Royal, fall of, 12
Porter, A. Toomer, 16, 98, 100, 106, 108, 112, 136
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 110
postwar judicial system, manhood and, 119
prolonging childhood, 65
propaganda, 5
public school system, Charleston, 12
Pursley family, 24–28
rabbits laying eggs at Easter, 34
Racial Radicalism, 123
rag dolls, 37
raising money, children, 12
rebellion
girls, 66
linguistic, 73
Reconstruction
black suffrage and, 109
condemnation, UDC, 128
Confederate Phoenix, 121
economy and, 109
elite families, 112–14
schools, Freedmen's Bureau, 108
slavery and, 108
Red Shirts, 120–21, 124
refugees, physicians and, 77
Reign of Terror, Ku Klux Klan, 117
Religion, 60, 106
reserve corps, 15
Rogers, George, 1
romantic patriotism, 66
round dance, 66
runaway slaves, 81
Santa, 34
schools. see also education
Bull Run victory and, 51
Camden Male Academy, 51
Citadel, 23, 55, 102, 126, 133
College of Charleston, 55
Confederate textbook movement, 61
disruption of, 51
evangelical academies, 57
exempt, 53–54
female academies, 53–54
finishing schools, 56
Fort Sumter victory and, 51
free schools, 50
Freedmen's Bureau, 108
King's Mountain Military Academy, 55, 102
Mt. Zion Institute, 55
nation building, 57
(p.203)
as refuge from invaders, 56
South Carolina College, 7, 55, 129
South Carolina Military Academy, 22, 55, 102, 139
State Arsenal, 55, 109
Union Military Academy, 55
white and black children together, 123
wounded veterans in schoolhouses, 51
Yankee schoolbooks, 61
Yorkville Male Academy, 55
secession, Upcountry versus Lowcountry, 58
secular obituaries, 59
“See Her Still in My Dreams,” 30
self-government of children, 35
sexual activity, Confederate soldiers and black women, 69
shabby finery dress, 69
shelling of capital, 93
Sherman's army, 92
black women, 94
Camden, 95
children and, 96
Columbia Bazaar and, 93
elite families, 94
family staying with Sherman, 95
nightmares following, 97
offer of coffee, 97
rapes, 95
routine, 94
shoemakers, 79
siblings in war, 15–16
sinking of Palmetto State, 59
slave overseers, see overseers
slave women, 40
slaves
paternalism, differences and, 81
reconstruction and, 108
runaways, 81
“twenty-nigger law,” 80
Smalls, Robert, 3, 21, 81
Smyth, Thomas, 8
socializing of males through horses, 38
soldiers
disabled, marriage to, 72
discharge to be slave overseers, 82
favoring, 87
marriage as ticket home, 71
marriage to, 71
Northern abandoning Southern-born offspring, 104
prohibition against women, 57
wounded, discharges and, 85
Soldiers' Board of Relief for Newberry District, 88
Soldiers' Orphan Education Institute, 103
Soldiers' Relief, 88
Soldiers' Relief Society, 104
sons
firstborn, 32
maternal influence and, 35
Sons of Confederate Veterans, 132
Sons of the Confederacy, 125
South Carolina
as military-friendly state, 134
as most militant Confederate state, 1
Sherman's march and, 1
as spoiled child, 5
South Carolina College, 7, 55, 129
South Carolina Military Academy, 22, 55, 102, 139
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 8
spanking children, 34
State Arsenal, 55, 109
State Legislature bazaar, 92–93
students enlisting, 55
substitution in army, 140
suitors, fickleness of, 71
Sunday schools, patriotism and, 60
Survivor's Association, 109
Swamp Angel, 99, 136
Tanner, Bishop Benjamin, 108
teachers
Conscription Act and, 51
exempt, 53–54
opportunities for women, 71
women's growth in position, 55–56
teenagers, 66–67
teething babies, 34
textbooks, 50
The Civil War (Ken Burns), 132
The Planter, 3
The Story of a Drummer Boy, 18
theological interpretation of war, 8
Thornwell, James H., 7
Thurmond, Strom, 123, 131
Tom Brown, 62–64
The Tramp Brigade, 27
trousseaus for weddings, 72
“twenty-nigger law,” 80
typhoid, 20
(p.204) UDC (United Daughters of the Confederacy), 123
catechisms, 125
chapters in 2007, 135
children and, 127
as educational reformers, 126
gender orthodoxy, 127
Roman Catholic Church and, 125
Uncle Fabian, 62–64
underage children serving in army, 14
Union Military Academy, 55
United Confederate Veterans, 124
United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), 123, 125
Upcountry
artisans, 77
attitudes toward Lowcountry, 59
cultural differences between Lowcountry people, 59
doctors, 76
evangelicals of, 59–60, 68
impressment and, 88
Ku Klux Klan, 117
Lowcountry refugees, 59
manners of, 58
Phoenix Riot, 124
refugees and, 51, 59
secession and, 58
women, Lowcountry women and, 58
vaccinations, elite families, 38
Vanderford, Alonzo, dreams and, 32
Vanderford family, 46–48
Vicksburg, defeat at, religion and, 60
Vicksburg campaign, anti-Yankee vituperation and, 10
Vietnam War, 130
vigilance associations, 6
Voting Rights Act of 1965, 130
Walker, Dr. Mary E., 52, 68
war
death as legacy, 109–10
people's transgressions and, 60
as ticket to manhood, 16
as vendetta, 111
warm jacket game, 36
warrior ethos, 55, 134
weaning babies, 34
Webster's Speller, 61
weddings, 70, 72
mock,67
white and black childrens' play, 36
Racial Radicalism and, 124
white children attending school with black, 123
white women
emancipation and, 3
living with black men, 69
widows, 103–4
wives. see also girls; married women qualities of good, 65
women
as companions, 33
effects of war on, 72
equality to men in mental power, 57
Godey's Ladies Book, 73
growth in teaching positions, 55–56
independence of, 71
marriage to disabled soldiers, 72
in military dress, 58
mortally wounded husbands, 40
overseers, need for, 82
sickly children, 40
slaying as retaliation, 10
soldiers, prohibition against, 57
teaching opportunities, 71
white, living with black men, 69
women's dress, mourning, 39
wounded soldiers, discharges and, 85
wounded veterans in schoolhouses, 51
Yankee schoolbooks, 61
yellow fever, 20
Yorkville Male Academy, 55