Chaosmos: The Return of the Middle Ages
According to Umberto Eco, one can speak of the Dark Ages in the sense that the population of Europe fell by twenty million. The only flourishing civilization was the Irish one, and that was not by chance. Irish monks went to civilize the continent. However, immediately after the millennium, one can no longer speak of the Dark Ages. European culture and European society grew with the new feudalism and the new bourgeoisie, the birth of Italian and Flemish communes, the free cities, the invention of the bank and the check, and of credit. In one of Eco's essays, he actually talks about the return of the Middle Ages, whereby he wants to stress certain common elements in the sense in which his era is undoubtedly an era of transition.
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